Vitexin flavonoid information and medical benefits
March 1 2014

Vitexin is a flavonoid glycoside found in certain herbs including hawthorn herb.

Cancer benefit
Vitexins, nature-derived lignan compounds, induce apoptosis and suppress tumor growth.
lin Cancer Res. 200; Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, China.
Lignans such as secoisolariciresinol diglucoside in flaxseed, are metabolizes to bioactive mammalian lignans of END and ENL. Because mammalian lignans have chemical structural similarity to the natural estrogen, they are thought to behave like selective estrogen receptor modulators and therefore have anticancer effect against hormone-related cancers. We isolated a series of lignan compounds, named as Vitexins, from the seed of Chinese herb Vitex Negundo. We purified several Vitexin lignan compounds. Cytotoxic and antitumor effects were analyzed in cancer cells and in tumor xenograft models. In vivo metabolism of Vitexins was determined in rat. Vitexin is a class of nature lignan compounds, whose action and anticancer effect is mediated by the mechanisms different from the classic lignans. Vitexin-induced antitumor effect and cytotoxic activity is exerted through proapoptotic process, which is mediated by a decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio and activation of caspases.

Aloysia citriodora Palau
Aloysia citriodora Palau is widely used for gastrointestinal disorders and as eupeptic in South America. The flavonoid vitexin is partially responsible for the spasmolytic effect, since it non-competitively inhibits acetylcholine but not the Ca(2+) influx. Isovitexin is devoid of activity on the duodenum.

Hawthorn herb
Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) leaves have vitexin-2"-O-glucoside, vitexin-2"-O-rhamnoside, rutin, and hyperoside.

Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis)
Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) have flavonoids that include dihydrochalcones aspalathin and nothofagin and their flavone analogues, orientin and isoorientin, and vitexin and isovitexin, respectively, as well as luteolin, chrysoeriol, catechin, quercetin, isoquercitrin, hyperoside and rutin.

Sophora tonkinensis
Sophora tonkinensis herb has bayin, vitexin, lupeol and tonkinensisol.

Trollius ledibouri Reichb. flower
Trollius ledibouri flower has 2''-O-beta-L-galactopyranosylorientin, 2''-O-beta-arabinopyranosylorientin, orientin and vitexin.

Tryptophan serotonin home

Pharm Biol. 2014 Feb 20. Hepatic, gastric, and intestinal first-pass effects of vitexin in rats. Recent research has demonstrated that vitexin exhibits a prominent first-pass effect. In this light, it is necessary to investigate the causes of this distinct first-pass effect. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatic, gastric, and intestinal first-pass effects of vitexin in rats and, furthermore, to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) in the absorption and secretion of vitexin in the duodenum. Materials and methods: Vitexin was infused into rats intravenously, intraportally, intraduodenally, and intragastrically (30 mg/kg). In addition, verapamil (50 mg/kg), a common substrate/inhibitor of P-gp and CYP3A, was also instilled with vitexin into the duodenum to investigate the regulatory action of P-gp and CYP3A. The plasma concentrations of vitexin were measured by the HPLC method using hesperidin as an internal standard. Results: The hepatic, gastric, and intestinal first-pass effects of vitexin in rats were 5.2%, 31.3%, and 94.1%, respectively. In addition, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC) of the vitexin plus verapamil group and of the normal saline group was 44.9 and 39.8 μgċ min/mL, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: The intestinal first-pass effect of vitexin was considerable, and gastric and hepatic first-pass effects also contribute to the low absolute oral bioavailability of vitexin. The AUC of the vitexin plus verapamil group was slightly higher than that of the vitexin plus normal saline group (by approximately 1.13-fold), suggesting that verapamil does not play an important role in the absorption and secretion of vitexin.