Troxerutin information and science studies, are there medical benefits and clinical uses?
March 1 2014

Troxerutin is a derivative of the natural bioflavonoid rutin. Troxerutin is found in many plants, and can be easily extracted from Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda tree). Troxerutin is an antioxidant and has beneficial effects on venous health. Troxerutin is used in the treatment of varicose veins and hemorrhoids.

Brain cell protection
Chronic administration of troxerutin protects mouse brain against d-galactose-induced impairment of cholinergic system.
Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2009. Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, PR China.
Previous evidence showed that administration of d-galactose (d-gal) increased ROS production and resulted in impairment of cholinergic system. Troxerutin, a natural bioflavonoid, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of troxerutin against d-gal-induced impairment of cholinergic system, and explored the potential mechanism of its action. Our results displayed that troxerutin administration significantly improved behavioral performance of d-gal-treated mice in step-through test and morris water maze task. One of the potential mechanisms of this action was decreased AGEs, ROS and protein carbonyl levels in the basal forebrain, hippocampus and front cortex of d-gal-treated mice. Furthermore, our results also showed that troxerutin significantly inhibited cholinesterase (AchE) activity, increased the expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 (nAchRalpha7) and enhanced interactions between nAchRalpha7 and either postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) or N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors subunit 1 (NMDAR1) in the basal forebrain, hippocampus and front cortex of d-gal-treated mice, which could help restore impairment of brain function.

Troxerutin for ear disorder
Aescin and troxerutin as a successful combination for the treatment of inner ear perfusion disturbances.
Phytomedicine. 2008. Siegers CP, Syed Ali S. Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee Luebeck, Germany.
A fixed combination of aescin and troxerutin has been developed for treating inner ear perfusion problems of different etiology. The efficacy of this combination is tested versus pentoxyfyllin in a randomized clinical study as group comparison with 34 patients for each group. The improvement of hearing after 40-44 days of treatment is determined as end point of treatment. Hearing was measured by threshold, whereby a difference of more than 10dB is judged as a significant improvement. After the treatment with the combination of aescin and troxerutin hearing is significantly improved, in 23 of 34 patients the threshold is changed more than 10dB. With pentoxyfyllin hearing is also improved, although to a lesser degree. Both drugs are well tolerated, major adverse drug effects are not observed with either treatment.

Troxerutin for diabetic nephropathy
Efficacy of troxerutin on streptozotocin-induced rat model in the early stage of diabetic retinopathy.
Arzneimittelforschung. 2005. Research Institutes of Dong-A Pharmaceutical Company, Kyunggi, Republic of Korea.
The vascular changes associated with early diabetic retinopathy, which include the formation of microaneurysms and acellular capillaries, vessel dilation, vascular endothelial growth factor expression, were investigated experimentally in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with antioxidants: troxerutin (trihydroxy-ethylrutoside, CAS 7085-55-4), Vaccinium myrtillus, and calcium dobesilate (hydroquinone calcium sulfonate, CAS 20123-80-2). Oxidative stress might be involved in the upregulation of retinal VEGF during early diabetes, and it is likely that troxerutin has comparatively effective antioxidant properties. Therefore, troxerutin might be a useful treatment for attenuating diabetic retinopathy.

Troxerutin for renal injury
Troxerutin protects the mouse kidney from d-galactose-caused injury through anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2009; Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, PR China.
This study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of troxerutin against D-galactose (D-gal)-induced renal injury in mice. Our results indicate that troxerutin has significantly inhibitory effects on the NF-kappaB-mediated inflammatory response. These findings suggest troxerutin could attenuate renal injury induced by D-gal probably through its antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties.

Int J Mol Med. 2014 April. Altered miRNA expression profiles are involved in the protective effects of troxerutin against ultraviolet B radiation in normal human dermal fibroblasts.

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